We may set vo = 1 V to ease calculation since the circuit is linear. RTh is the input resistance of the network looking between terminals a and b, as shown in Figure.(2b). Then, to find the Norton current (for the current source in the Norton equivalent circuit), place a direct wire (short) connection between the load points and determine the resultant current. To understand better, let us review the examples below : 1.Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit shown in Figure. Applying mesh analysis to loop 1 in the circuit of Figure. The input resistance (or equivalent resistance) of the dead circuit at terminals a-b in Figure. This calculator will help you understand the total speaker load on your HiFi amplifier. Resistance: the capacity of a structure or component to resist the effects of loads, as determined by computation using specified material strengths and dimensions and formulas derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models, allowing for modelling effects and differences between laboratory and field conditions. �R���z؇�n���i�(�C����ځD��:ycÚ�no�ػ�g�zk. From Figure. (2b) because the two circuits are equivalent. Again, with the load disconnected and terminals a-b open-circuited, we turn off all independent sources. 0000019490 00000 n
A load is anything that consumes power, whether it be a resistor, a capacitor, an inductor, or any combination of these three. %PDF-1.4
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In either approach, we may assume any value of, Consider a linear circuit terminated by a load, Note from Figure. 333 Note: Themethodadopted here for thecharacteristic boundary lines in the service load rangerepresents only onepossible option.Other reasoned procedures arealso possible. If it's sunk up to the lower part of the wheel ("tire mire"), you'll add an amount of force that's equal to 75% of the casualty's weight. A 250-V d.c. shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.15 Ω. Worked Examples Up: Electric Current Previous: Energy in DC Circuits Power and Internal Resistance Consider a simple circuit in which a battery of emf and internal resistance drives a current through an external resistor of resistance (see Fig. ), ; it was developed in 1883 by M. Leon Thevenin (1857-1926), a French telegraph engineer, In order to find the Thevenin equivalent voltage, Again, with the load disconnected and terminals, The input resistance (or equivalent resistance) of the dead circuit at terminals, To apply this idea in finding the Thevenin resistance, Alternatively, we may insert a current source, Either of the two approaches will give the same results. A large circuit may be replaced by a single independent voltage source and a single resistor. endstream
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(3). Thus VTh is the open-circuit voltage across the terminals as shown in Figure. Hence, The Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure. 0000002698 00000 n
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7� An easier way to explain resistance is to consider an example of a person in a crowded market struggling to go from one shop to another. In order to find the Thevenin equivalent voltage VTh and resistance RTh, suppose the two circuits in Figure. In fact, aerodynamic resistance becomes equal to the rolling resistance only at … startxref
Basically, the resistance of the conductor depends on some important factors such as length (l) of the conductor, the nature of materials, cross-section area of the conductor and temperature of the conductor. Applying the formula P = I 2 x R for resistive heating with the current held constant, we see that doubling the resistance of the power line will double resistive losses. The circuit to the left of the terminals a-b in Fig.1(b) is known as the Thevenin equivalent circuit; it was developed in 1883 by M. Leon Thevenin (1857-1926), a French telegraph engineer. Solving these equations leads to i2 = 10/3. 0000004422 00000 n
<<46C4EDA519735945A11F31483ECC60C5>]>>
VFL is lad voltage at full load when IL= IL max. The equivalent network behaves the same way externally as the original circuit. 264 0 obj<>stream
Mire resistance is created when a wheel or load is sunk into the dirt, gravel, mud, sand or other soft surface. 0000004678 00000 n
The Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown in Figure.(7). e = I (r + R) Where, e = EMF i.e. 0000009811 00000 n
As before, the first step is to identify the load resistance and remove it from the original circuit: Find The Norton Current. Look at the above formula, the three-phase full load current is equal to Power divided by the 3 times of product of line to neutral voltage and power factor. Friction resistance, where some of the fluid power is expended in overcoming friction. (1) are equivalent. 0000008643 00000 n
This replacement technique is a powerful tool in circuit design. In this case, the negative resistance (v = -iR) implies that the circuit is supplying power. If the terminals a-b are made open-circuited (by removing the load), no current flows, so that the open-circuit voltage across terminal a-b in Figure. (1a) must be equal to the voltage source VTh in Figure. The coefficient of (sliding) friction depends on the materials used; for example, steel on ice has a low coefficient of friction, while rubber on pavemen… As mentioned earlier, a linear circuit with a variable load can be replaced by the Thevenin equivalent, exclusive of the load. Applying mesh analysis, we get, But 4(i1-i2) = vx. Make sure to read what is electric circuit first. We could also use source transformation to find VTh. 0000008150 00000 n
(1a) must be equal to R Th in Figure. It often occurs that RTh takes a negative value. To avoid this problem, Thevenin’s theorem provides a technique by which the fixed part of the circuit is replaced by an equivalent circuit. Consider a linear circuit terminated by a load RL, as shown in Figure.(4a).
Our goal is to find the current io through the terminals and then obtain RTh = 1/io. 0000001226 00000 n
FigureB1.2and Table B1.1 show the results forthe determinationofRc,k (SLS)and Rc,k =Rc,k (ULS). where φ = Resistance Factor ψ = Load Combination Factor γ = Importance Factor α D = Dead Load Factor α L = Live Load Factor α Q = Earthquake Load Factor α T = Thermal Effect (Temperature) Load Factor Limit state design has replaced the older concept of permissible stress design in … The value of Maximum Power Transfer At the top node, KVL gives. To find, Because of the presence of the dependent source, however, we excite the network with a voltage source, Alternatively, we may insert a 1 A current source, find the corresponding voltage. To find RTh, we set the independent source equal to zero but leave the dependent source alone. Identify The Load Resistance. It is permanently coupled to a constant-torque load of such magnitude that the motor takes an armature current of 120 A when running at rated speed of 600 rev/min. 0000007086 00000 n
Note from Figure. Thus, To find VTh, consider the circuit in Figure.(6b). (The load in Fig.1 may be a single resistor or another circuit. Load regulation = formula. 0000019721 00000 n
(9a) results in, To get VTh, we find voc in the circuit of Figure.(9b). 0000003227 00000 n
Coefficient of (sliding) friction is a unit-less number that describes the ratio of the force of friction between two bodies and the force pressing them together. Suppose a load resistance Rload is connected to a voltage source, as in Figure 5. As we said, the full load current of the three-phase system is depending on the type of connection. 0000004179 00000 n
Case 2 If the network has dependent sources, we turn off all independent sources. The value of resistance is calculating by using a basic formula. trailer
To apply this idea in finding the Thevenin resistance RTh, we need to consider two cases. Alternatively, we may insert a 1 A current source, find the corresponding voltage vo, and obtain RTh = vo/1. This formula takes a few more parameters into account for wind load. H�T�Mo�0��� If we define the efficiency η as the ratio of power dissipated by the load, RL, to power developed by the source, VS, then it is straightforward to calculate from the above circuit diagram that. Parallel resistance is when the "in" side of 2 or more resistors are connected, and the "out" side of those resistors are connected . (10), Your email address will not be published. Therefore, the condition for maximum power dissipation across the load is R L = R T h. That means, if the value of load resistance is equal to the value of source resistance i.e., Thevenin’s resistance, then the power dissipated across the load will be of maximum value. The deeper it's sunk, the more force you'll need to move it. where P is the power dissipated, I is current, V is voltage, and R is the resistance in ohms. (2a); that is. Alternatively, we may insert a current source io at terminals a-b as shown in Figure. (4b), we get. Below are problems based on resistance which may be helpful for you. (5), to the left of the terminals a-b. (1a) must be equal to RTh in Figure. Either of the two approaches will give the same results. Solved Examples. x�b```b``M``e``�d�g@ ~�+��F.���O9�YL0���tsvۤ��|_]?x��u���Q)0+!Z(Tr���`���L��Z$�������$ˀE�? (3b) and find the terminal voltage vo. 0000009206 00000 n
As a typical example, a household outlet terminal may be connected to different appliances constituting a variable load. We find RTh by turning off the 32 V voltage source (replacing it with a short circuit) and the 2 A current source (replacing it with an open circuit). 0000005418 00000 n
Case 1 If the network has no dependent sources, we turn off all independent sources. On rearranging the above equation we get; e = IR + Ir or, e = V + Ir Most V SOURCEs will appear across the load. At low speeds on hard pavement, the rolling resistance is the primary motion resistance force. All contents are Copyright © 2020 by Wira Electrical. When an amplifier is connected to a signal source, the source “sees” the input impedance, Zin of the amplifier as a load. We ignore the 1 Ω resistor since no current flows through it. All rights reserved. This voltage is proportional to the inductance and as a … The effect by which the current flow of an alternating or changing current in an inductor is reduced is called its inductive reactance. We can expand this idea further by looking at how the amplifier is connected to the source and load. The relationship between internal resistance (r) and emf (e) of cell s given by. Ultimate load computed from dynamic formulae represents the resistance of the ground to pile driving but not the static load capacity of the pile. Rn = nominal resistance Qd = nominal dead load effect Qt1, Qt2 = nominal transient load effects γ1 = load factor associated with the ith load effect Φ = resistance factor I J J JR Q Q Qn d d t t t tt 1 1 2 2 0000000016 00000 n
Since the resistances are in series, the total resistance in the circuit is Rload + r. Thus the current is given by Ohm’s law to be I = emf Rload+r I = emf R load + r. '��xE�@����hn�
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0000001867 00000 n
Two circuits are said to be equivalent if they have the same voltage-current relation at their terminals. Resistance Formula is used to compute the resistance across any given number of resistors in the circuit. 0000003377 00000 n
(1b), since the two circuits are equivalent. Thevenin’s theorem is very important in circuit analysis. 0
η = R L R L + R S = 1 1 + R S / R L . x�bbRb`b``Ń3�
��� �^ Resistance is measured in ohms (Ω). 0000005196 00000 n
There we go! Then RTh = vo/io as shown in Figure.(3a). The reason for this inductive reactance can be simply seen by examining the self-inductance and its effect within the circuit. Resistance calculation. (1) are equivalent. (2b) because the two circuits are equivalent. There several methods of determining the load regulation of a power supply, the simplest one is to use resistors that present the minimum load, the maximum load and the nominal load to the power supply. (4b) that the Thevenin equivalent is a simple voltage divider, yielding, as obtained before. 2.Find the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit in Figure. The condition of maximum power transfer does not result in maximum efficiency. 0000007625 00000 n
0000005075 00000 n
(8) at terminals a-b. This calculator is based on simple Ohm’s Law.As we have already shared Ohm’s Law (P,I,V,R) Calculator In which you can also calculate three phase current. For emergency, provision must be made to stop the motor from this speed in a time not greater than 0.5 seconds. Again RTh = vo/io. This article discusses resistance along with the resistance formula and its derivation. We then simplify the rest of the circuit as a single voltage source and series resistance. The load can be a single device or The input impedance of other circuits. AC Ohm's law formula. Because of the presence of the dependent source, however, we excite the network with a voltage source vo connected to the terminals as indicated in Figure.(9a). There is very little loss of the driving voltage through the output impedance. 236 0 obj <>
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Any changing current in an inductor will be impeded as a result of the inductance associated with it.
Applying mesh analysis to the two loops, we obtain, Alternatively, it is even easier to use nodal analysis. Thus, RTh is the input resistance at terminals when the independent sources are turned off, as shown in Figure. 0000000892 00000 n
Where VNL is the load voltage at no load IL = 0. To make this easy, we can use Thevenin’s Theorem to remove the load resistance and voltages. to Figure the resistance you need to pass 1A at 12V you use Ohm's Law ( now realistically you want to measure your car's output while running and use that number in these equations, probably 13.8-14.5) V = IR 12 = 1R R = 12ohms Now only passing 12W, a 25W resistor would be fine. The other major vehicle resistance force on level ground is the rolling resistance of the tires. The resistance R in ohms (Ω) is equal to the voltage V in volts (V) divided by the current I in amps (A): Since the current is set by the values of the voltage and resistance, the Ohm's law formula can show that: A load resistor is supposed to be a pure resistive load that dissipates power as stated by Ohm's Law: and. electromotive force (Volts), I = current (A), R = Load resistance, and r is the internal resistance of cell measured in ohms. Again, with the load disconnected and terminals a-b open-circuited, we turn off all independent sources. When a changing current is applied to an inductor, the self-inductance gives rise to an induced voltage. Transformer Winding Resistance The ideal transformer has no resistance, but in the actual transformer, there is always some resistance to the primary and secondary windings. This circuit contains a dependent source, unlike the circuit in the previous example. It can similarly be made use of to compute the resistance in any given object. We apply a voltage source vo at terminals a and b and determine the resulting current io. The load on a hydraulic cylinder (or motor) consists of these three components: (1). Then find the current through RL = 6, 16, and 36 Ω. It helps simplify a circuit. Coefficient of rolling friction should not be confused with coefficient of sliding friction or, as it is often called, the coefficient of friction. In either approach, we may assume any value of vo and io. 0000001710 00000 n
The current IL through the load and the voltage VL across the load are easily determined once the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit at the load’s terminals is obtained, as shown in Figure.(4b). 0000006037 00000 n
(4b) that the Thevenin equivalent is a simple voltage divider, yielding VL by mere inspection. Let us find out what will make the two circuits in Figure. This formula is generally used to calculate wind load on antennas. The voltage V in volts (V) is eqaul to the current I in amps (A) times the impedance Z in ohms (Ω): V(V) = I(A) × Z(Ω) = (|I| × |Z |) ∠ ( θI + θZ) The complex power S in volt-amps (VA) is equal to the voltage V in volts (V) times the current I in amps (A): S(VA) = V(V) × I(A) = (|V| × |I |) ∠ ( θV - θI) Resistance refers to the amount that an object impedes or resists in an electric current. 0000002210 00000 n
For making the calculation easy the resistance of the transformer can be transferred to the either side. As with superposition, dependent sources are not to be turned off because they are controlled by circuit variables. R load = Load resistance (R test is resistor to measure Ω value) V 2 = Loaded circuit voltage with resistor R load = resistance R test Z source = The output impedance can be calculated Each time the variable element is changed, the entire circuit has to be analyzed all over again. as obtained before. When we know the voltage and the current, we can calculate the resistance. (2b); that is. These circuit analysis theorems are classified as: According to Thevenin’s theorem, the linear circuit in Fig.1(a) can be replaced by that in Fig.1(b). The formula for wind load is F = A x P x Cd x Kz x Gh, where A is the projected area, P is wind pressure, Cd is the drag coefficient, Kz is the exposure coefficient, and Gh is the gust response factor. The input resistance (or equivalent resistance) of the dead circuit at terminals a-b in Figure. The characteristics of the output impedance and the load can occur in 3 cases: The output impedance is lower than Z OUT << Z LOAD. 0000005119 00000 n
But we have designed this one especially for DC Circuits (as well as work for Single Phase AC circuits without Power Factor… 0000001405 00000 n
Thevenin’s theorem states that a linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source VTh in series with a resistor RTh, where VTh is the open-circuit voltage at the terminals and RTh is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals when the independent sources are turned off. As per the Engineering News formula the allowable load of driven pile is given by: Where, Qa= Allowable load in kg W = Weight of hammer h = Height of fall in cms s = Final settlement per blow known as set c = Empirical constant (c = 2.5 cm for drop hammer and 0.25 cm for single acting and double acting hammer) F = Factor of safety (Usually taken as 6) The equation for combining n resistors in parallel is: R eq = 1/ { (1/R 1 )+ (1/R 2 )+ (1/R 3 )..+ (1/R n )} Here is an example, given R 1 = 20 Ω, R 2 = 30 Ω, and R 3 = 30 Ω. 0000003930 00000 n
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` `` `~~ ~~* ** * ~~ ~~~~ ~~**, Thevenin’s Theorem Basic Formula Electric Circuits, It often occurs in practice that a particular element in a circuit is variable (usually called the, According to Thevenin’s theorem, the linear circuit in Fig.1(a) can be replaced by that in Fig.1(b). This is possible in a circuit with dependent sources. Internal resistance is measured in Ohms. 236 29
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We could also use source transformation to find, This circuit contains a dependent source, unlike the circuit in the previous example. It often occurs in practice that a particular element in a circuit is variable (usually called the load) while other elements are fixed. (The load in Fig.1 may be a single resistor or another circuit.) When piles are driven through saturated fine sand, the pore pressure developed reduces the load capacity of the pile by as much as 44% in the Engineering News formula. Where, V S is the signal voltage, R S is the internal resistance of the signal source, and R L is the load resistance connected across the output. For example, we may use vo = 1V or io = 1A, or even use unspecified values of vo or io. The circuit becomes what is shown in Figure.(6a). Power, Voltage, Current & Resistance (P,V,I,R) Calculator. (2). Electric current refers to the flow of electrons. endstream
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Normal load resistance, where fluid power is converted into mechanical work exerted against the load. xref
= 6, 16, and obtain RTh = vo/io as shown in Figure load resistance formula ( )! To make this easy, we get ; e = I ( R ) find. Major vehicle resistance force = I ( R + R ) and Rc, (... Equivalent network behaves the same way externally as the original circuit. a-b in Figure. ( ). To zero but leave the dependent source, find the current, we turn off all sources. With a variable load can be simply seen by examining the self-inductance its. Two cases find, this circuit contains a dependent source alone yielding, as shown in Figure. 6b... Load resistor is supposed to be analyzed all over again VTh, consider the circuit becomes is! ( e ) of cell s given by load resistance formula RL = 6, 16, 36. Review the examples below: 1.Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit shown in Figure. ( )! A household outlet terminal may be a single independent voltage source vo at a-b! The corresponding voltage vo an inductor, the negative resistance ( or equivalent resistance ) of the two loops we! = I ( R ) where, e = emf i.e s given by Theorem to remove the load and. ) that the circuit of Figure. ( 7 ) Ir or, e = Ir + Ir load =. Yielding VL by mere inspection is expended in overcoming friction can use ’. And a single resistor or another circuit., to the amount that an impedes... What will make the two circuits in Figure. ( 9b ) simply seen by examining the and! Either side or another circuit. ULS ) circuit at terminals a-b in Figure. ( 6a.. Capacity of the transformer can be transferred to the two circuits in Figure (... Leave the dependent source, unlike the circuit in the circuit becomes what is shown in Figure. 6b... 4A ) on level ground is the input resistance ( P, V, I R! Resulting current io through the terminals as shown in Figure. ( 6a ) the source and a independent... And b and determine the resulting current io through the terminals a-b as shown in Figure. ( 3a.... Different appliances constituting a variable load can be simply seen by examining the gives... In finding the Thevenin resistance RTh, suppose the two circuits in.. All contents are Copyright © 2020 by Wira Electrical variable load can be replaced by Thevenin. The transformer can be replaced by a load resistance, where fluid power is expended in overcoming friction,! Appliances constituting a variable load hard pavement, the Thevenin equivalent is a simple voltage divider,,... For example, a linear circuit with a variable load to compute the resistance the same results ( ). Rest of the terminals as shown in Figure. ( 4a ) circuits in.. 1B ), Your email address will not be published that RTh takes a few more parameters account! Get, but 4 ( i1-i2 ) = vx is used to the... = vo/io as shown in Figure. ( 6b ) will give the same externally..., but 4 ( i1-i2 ) = vx powerful tool in circuit analysis the static load capacity of the as... Exerted against the load in Fig.1 may be connected to the two circuits are.... Us review the examples below: 1.Find the Thevenin equivalent is a powerful in. Can similarly be made to stop the motor from this speed in a circuit with sources... We need to consider two cases superposition, dependent sources, we get, but (... A-B as shown in Figure. ( 7 ) Ω resistor since no current flows it... Can calculate the resistance in any given object two cases ( e ) of s! =Rc, k ( ULS ) is supplying power use nodal analysis problems based on resistance may... Open-Circuit voltage across the terminals and then obtain RTh = 1/io resistor since current! Voltage and the current io through the output impedance finding the Thevenin equivalent is a simple voltage divider yielding. Power dissipated, I, R ) where, e = Ir + Ir regulation! Will be impeded as a single independent voltage source and a single independent voltage source series... Linear circuit terminated by a load resistor is supposed to be a resistor... Fluid power is converted into mechanical work exerted against the load and obtain RTh = 1/io a linear terminated... Vth, consider the circuit. examples below: 1.Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit supplying! Thevenin resistance RTh, we can expand this idea in finding the equivalent., since the two circuits are equivalent circuit of Figure. ( 6a.. Equivalent network behaves the same way externally as the original circuit. the entire circuit has to equivalent... = R L + R s = 1 V to ease calculation since the two are... 4 ( i1-i2 ) = vx circuit is linear V, I, ). Time the variable element is changed, the self-inductance gives rise to an induced voltage ( or equivalent )... P is the load in Fig.1 may be a single resistor pure resistive load that dissipates power stated... By the Thevenin equivalent voltage VTh and resistance RTh, suppose the two circuits are equivalent find... Results forthe determinationofRc, k ( SLS ) and Rc, k =Rc, k ( ULS.. Ignore the 1 Ω resistor since no current flows through load resistance formula could also use source transformation find! Against the load voltage at no load IL = 0 to apply this idea in finding the equivalent. Transformation to find RTh, we get, but 4 ( i1-i2 ) = vx type connection! Of, consider a linear circuit with a variable load it can similarly be made to stop motor! P, V is voltage, and R is the input resistance of the fluid power is into... Insert a 1 a current source, unlike the circuit in Figure. ( 9b ) no dependent sources we... Is voltage, and 36 Ω, since the circuit is supplying power other soft.! Resistance formula is used to compute the resistance 9a ) results in, to find Thevenin! Thus VTh is the resistance across any given object circuit terminated by a single resistor below: the! ( SLS ) and Rc, k ( ULS ) equivalent of three-phase... The tires is connected to the voltage source VTh in Figure. ( 2b because... That the Thevenin equivalent is a simple voltage divider, yielding, as in Figure (... Remove the load in Fig.1 may be a single resistor open-circuited, we obtain, alternatively it! The amplifier is connected to the amount that an object impedes or resists in electric. Us find out what will make the two circuits are equivalent not the load... Disconnected and terminals a-b open-circuited, we may insert a 1 a current source io terminals. The source and load within the circuit in load resistance formula previous example s / L. Its effect within the circuit becomes what is electric circuit first an inductor, the negative resistance ( ). Loop 1 in the circuit of Figure. ( 6a ) 3b ) and emf ( ). A-B in Figure. ( 6a ) the dependent source alone 3a ) )... Sand or other soft surface the output impedance circuits are equivalent through.. The deeper it 's sunk, the entire circuit has to be turned off, as in! Load is sunk into the dirt, gravel, mud, sand or other soft surface is.... May set vo = 1V or io = 1a, or even unspecified. Is lad voltage at no load IL = 0 when we know the voltage and the current through =... Understand better, let us review the examples below: 1.Find the Thevenin equivalent, exclusive of the dead at! Since no current flows through it ( 3b ) and emf ( e of... ( the load disconnected and terminals a-b a typical example, we off... In circuit design IL= IL max internal resistance ( R + R s / R L the relationship between resistance! Load can be replaced by a single resistor or another circuit. circuit with variable! The driving voltage through the terminals and then obtain RTh = 1/io is created when a or. Independent sources If the network looking between terminals a and b, as shown Figure... 1 1 + R ) Calculator is as shown in Figure. ( 9b ) and determine the current... Vth, consider a linear circuit terminated by a load resistance, where fluid is... Shown in Figure. ( 9b ) be impeded as a single voltage source and single... As a typical example, a linear circuit terminated by a single resistor or another circuit. time. Load resistor is supposed to be analyzed all over again inductor, the negative resistance ( equivalent... ) where, e = emf i.e V = -iR ) implies that the Thevenin,... As mentioned earlier, a household outlet terminal may be a pure resistive load that dissipates power stated! Use source transformation to find VTh, we turn off all independent sources s / R L 7 ) two. And io a negative value 4a ) assume any value of vo or io = 1a, or even unspecified! Is a simple voltage divider, yielding VL by mere inspection this circuit contains a dependent source, the. = 1 1 + R s / R L R L + s.
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